Autoreactive T cells target peripheral nerves in Guillain–Barré syndrome

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is characterized by an aberrant attack of the immune system against the peripheral nervous system. The immunobiology and antigens implicated in this disorder have yet to be completely elucidated. In this brilliant work, Súkeníková et Al. demonstrated that a specific T-cell response signature is present in GBS, showing that:

– Patients with AIDP, but not AMAN, have CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that target myelin antigens (P0, P2, and PMP22) in blood, CSF, and nerve tissue

– AIDP autoreactive memory CD4+ T cells are characterized by a pro-inflammatory Th1-like cytotoxic phenotype and express genes previously associated with autoimmunity

– The TCRβ repertoire of AIDP contains shorter CDR3β sequences than those of microbiome-specific or total memory CD4+ T cells

– The response of autoreactive T cells to PNS myelin antigens does not show strong cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2 antigens